Orchestrating an Immune Response to Cancer with Cellular Reprogramming
December 15, 2023
Genes & Immunity
Olga Zimmermannova, Alexandra Gabriela Ferreira & Carlos-Filipe Pereira
In recent years, immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment by harnessing the patient’s own immune system. However, cancer cells develop mechanisms to evade immune surveillance, compromising the body’s natural defences against cancer. The lack of immune control and immunotherapy failure can be attributed to both tumour intrinsic and extrinsic factors favouring the survival of tumour cells. These encompass primarily the downregulation of antigen presentation and major immunohistocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface, increasing tumour heterogeneity and exclusion or functional impairment of immune effectors within the tumour microenvironment (TME).